The implementation of the agreement by all member countries will be evaluated every 5 years, the first evaluation will take place in 2023. The result will serve as a contribution to new Nationally Determined Contributions by Member States.  The assessment is not a contribution/achievement of individual countries, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what still needs to be done. Following the conclusion of COP 21 (the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties presiding over the Conference) on 12 December 2015, the final text of the Paris Agreement was adopted by common agreement between all 195 Member States participating in the UNFCCC and the European Union in order to reduce emissions as part of the greenhouse gas reduction methodology. In the 12-page agreement, members pledged to reduce their carbon emissions « as quickly as possible » and to do their best to keep global warming « well below 2°C » [3.6°F].  The extent to which each country is on track to meet its commitments under the Paris Agreement can be continuously tracked online (via the Climate Action Tracker and the Climate Clock). The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was until 2012. This year, delegates at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (excluding some developed countries that had withdrawn). They also reaffirmed their 2011 commitment at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, to create a new comprehensive climate agreement by 2015 that would commit all major emitters not covered by the Kyoto Protocol – such as China, India and the United States – to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – the future Paris Agreement – is expected to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris Agreement entered into force earlier than planned, in November 2016. « They`re waiting for their time, they`re saying that if the U.S.
isn`t there, then we don`t need to rush to this point, » said Carlos Fuller, chief negotiator for the Alliance of Small Island States. It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. A clear framework has also been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some key reasons why the deal is so important: While Obama is credited with leading the charge in the deal, some have criticized him for failing to implement lasting change in the fight for the climate. Climate lawyer David Bookbinder wrote in Vox in 2017 that Obama`s climate policy did not begin until his re-election, largely because he was afraid of the political consequences that could ensue. The book « Energizing America, » which Sivaram co-authored, predicts that if the U.S. federal government launches a national energy innovation mission and triples its investment in clean energy innovation to $25 billion by 2025, it will create and maintain 1 million or more good long-term jobs in some of these advanced energy industries. These are measures that are likely to impact the country as a whole in the eyes of the world, Moore said. At the G7 summit in late May 2017, Trump was the only G7 member not to reaffirm his commitment to the Paris Agreement. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, one of the other heads of state and government present, was not publicly impressed by Trump`s refusal to cooperate on climate protection, which was aimed at damaging relations between Germany and the United States.
 The communiqué issued at the end of the summit states that the United States is « unable to join the consensus » of other G7 countries on climate change policy and the Paris Agreement.  Warmer temperatures – both on land and at sea – are changing global weather patterns and changing how and where precipitation falls. These changing patterns exacerbate dangerous and deadly droughts, heat waves, floods, wildfires and storms, including hurricanes. They also melt ice caps, glaciers, and permafrost layers, which can lead to sea level rise and coastal erosion. Warmer temperatures also affect entire ecosystems, unbalancing migration patterns and life cycles. For example, early spring can cause trees and plants to bloom before bees and other pollinators have emerged. While global warming can lead to longer growing seasons and higher food production in some areas, areas already struggling with water scarcity are expected to become drier, creating a risk of drought, crop failures or wildfires. While the expanded transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktake that takes place every 5 years, the framework is designed to provide « built-in flexibility » to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The Agreement takes into account the different situations of certain countries and notes in particular that the review by technical experts for each country takes into account the specific reporting capacity of that country.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and procedures necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  Although the agreement was signed in December 2015, it did not enter into force until November 4, 2016, 30 days after at least 55 countries, which account for 55% of global emissions, ratified it.
« No one has done that in the last four years and I don`t think they will in the future. » « The United States has been one of the main proponents of this initial funding. When they never kept their promises, it certainly had an impact on us, » said Carlos Fuller, chief climate negotiator for the Alliance of Small Island States, which represents 44 low-lying island and coastal countries in international climate negotiations. A « national communication » is a type of report submitted by countries that have ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  Developed countries are required to submit national communications every four years and developing countries should do so.    Some least developed countries have not submitted national communications in the past 5 to 15 years, mainly due to capacity constraints. When voters vote on Election Day, many will make the decision on how the country moves forward on climate action, experts said. .